There are or have been plans for Lithuania-Russia, Poland-Belarus, Bulgaria-Serbia and Bulgaria-North Macedonia local transport agreements.  The agreement between Poland and Belarus is expected to enter into force until 2012,282], but Belarus has been delayed with no transposition date set (October 2012).  Permits are issued with a validity period of between one and five years and allow residence in the border area for a maximum of three months. Permits can only be issued to legitimate residents of the border area who have been in the border area for at least one year (or more, if the bilateral agreement so provides). Applicants for approval must demonstrate that they have legitimate reasons for frequently crossing an external land border under the local border transport regime.  Thus, road, rail and passenger users are no longer checked by border guards for their identity when travelling between Schengen countries, although security checks of air carriers remain permitted.  In accordance with EU guidelines, it is recommended that all EU citizens bring a passport and/or identity card, as this is required. Three European micro-states – Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City – are officially not part of Schengen, but they are de facto considered part of the Schengen area, i.e. they are accessible without border controls. They have open borders and not border controls with the Schengen countries around them. Some national laws contain the text “Countries against which border controls are not carried out on the basis of the Schengen Agreement and EU Regulation 562/2006″, which then includes micro-states and other non-EU territories with open borders.
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