By an implementing decree, the president orders the government to work within the parameters already defined by Congress and the Constitution. Indeed, it allows the president to impose political changes without going through Congress. Several presidents have used executive regulations to enforce civil rights legislation against state or local resistance. In 1948, Truman passed an executive order that dissolved racial segregation in the country`s armed forces, while in 1957, Dwight D. Eisenhower used an order to send federal troops for the integration of public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. The First Order of Washington, in June 1789, ordered the heads of the executive services to provide reports on their operations. Over the years, presidents have generally adopted implementing regulations and other measures to set statutory holidays for federal employees, regulate the public service, characterize public lands as Indian reserves or national parks, and organize federal disaster response. New presidents often sign a series of implementing regulations and other measures in the first weeks of their government to direct the federal authorities that take care of them. Between 1789 and 1907, U.S. presidents issued a total of about 2,400 executive orders. Since 1908, when orders were first numbered chronologically, presidents have passed more than 13,700 implementing regulations reflecting the expansion of presidential power over the years. Executive Agreement, an agreement between the United States and a foreign government that is less formal than a treaty and is not subject to the constitutional requirement of ratification by two-thirds of the U.S. Senate.
After the president adopts an implementing decree, this ordinance is registered in the federal register and is considered binding, which means that it can be applied in the same way as if Congress had promulgated it as law. William Henry Harrison, who died after a month in office, was the only president who had not issued a single order; Franklin D. Roosevelt, the only president to have served more than two terms, signed by far most of the executive orders (3,721), many of which defined a significant portion of his overall New Deal reforms. The Supreme Court of the United States, in united states v. Pink (1942) considered that international executive agreements, which have been validated, have the same legal status as treaties and do not require Senate approval. In Reid v. Covert (1957), while reaffirming the President`s ability to enter into executive agreements, he decided that such agreements could not be contrary to federal law or the Constitution in force. A treaty is an international agreement concluded in writing between two or more sovereign States and subject to international law, whether enshrined in a single legal act or in two or more related instruments. . . .